Specific names are most common in meteorology, where multiple maps with different variables may be viewed simultaneously.
The prefix "iso-" can be replaced with "isallo-" to specify a contour line connecting points where a variable changes at the same rate during a given time period. An isogon from γωνία or gonia, meaning 'angle' is a contour line for a variable which measures direction. In meteorology and in geomagnetics, the term isogon has specific meanings which are described below. An isocline from κλίνειν or klinein, meaning 'to lean or slope' is a line joining points with equal slope.
In population dynamics and in geomagnetics, the terms isocline and isoclinic line have specific meanings which are described below. Equidistant points[ edit ] A curve of equidistant points is a set of points all at the same distance from a given pointlineor polyline.
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In this case the function whose value is being held constant along a contour line is a distance function. Isopleths[ edit ] InJohn K. Wright proposed that the term isopleth be used for contour lines that depict a variable which cannot be measured at a point, but which instead must be calculated from data collected over an area, as opposed to isometric lines for variables that could be measured at a point; this distinction has since been followed generally.
Each calculated value is presumed to be the value of the variable at the centre of the area, and isopleths can then be drawn by a process of interpolation. The idea of face comerciant de bani isopleth map can be compared with that of a choropleth map.
Weather stations are seldom exactly positioned at a contour line when they are, this indicates a measurement precisely equal to the value of the contour.
Instead, lines are drawn to best approximate the locations of exact values, based on the scattered information points available. Meteorological contour maps may present collected data such as actual air pressure at a given time, or generalized data such as average pressure over a period of time, or forecast data such as predicted air pressure at some point in the future Thermodynamic diagrams use multiple overlapping contour sets including isobars and isotherms to present a picture of the major thermodynamic factors in a weather system.
Barometric pressure[ edit ] Video loop of isallobars showing the motion of a cold front An isobar from βάρος or baros, meaning 'weight' is a line of equal or constant pressure on a graph, plot, or map; an isopleth or contour line of pressure.
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More accurately, isobars are lines drawn on a map joining places of equal average atmospheric pressure reduced to sea level for a specified period of time.
In meteorologythe barometric pressures shown are reduced to sea levelnot the surface pressures at the map locations. Isobars are commonly used in television weather reporting. Isallobars are lines joining points of equal pressure change during a specific time interval.
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An isopycnal is a line of constant density. An isoheight or isohypse is a line of constant geopotential height on a constant pressure surface chart.
Isohypse and isoheight are simply known as lines showing equal pressure on a map. Temperature and related subjects[ edit ] The 10 °C 50 °F mean isotherm in July, marked by the red line, is commonly used to define the border of the Arctic region An isotherm from θέρμη or thermē, meaning 'heat' is a line that connects points on a map that have the same temperature.
Therefore, all points through which an isotherm passes have the same or equal temperatures at the time indicated. The term was coined by the Prussian geographer and naturalist Alexander von Humboldt, who as part of his research into the geographical distribution of plants published the first map of isotherms in Paris, in An isocheim is a line of equal mean winter temperature, and an isothere is a line of equal mean summer temperature.
An isohel from ἥλιος or helios, meaning 'Sun' is a line of equal or constant solar radiation. Rainfall and air moisture[ edit ] An isohyet or isohyetal line from ὕετος or huetos, meaning 'rain' is a line joining points of equal rainfall on a map in a given period.
A map with isohyets is called an isohyetal map. An isohume is a line of constant relative humiditywhile an isodrosotherm from δρόσος or drosos, meaning 'dew', and θέρμη or therme, meaning 'heat' is a line of equal or constant dew point. An isoneph is a line indicating equal cloud cover. An isochalaz is a line of constant frequency of hail storms, and an isobront is a line drawn through geographical points at which a given phase of thunderstorm activity occurred simultaneously.
Snow cover is frequently shown as a contour-line map. Wind[ edit ] An isotach from ταχύς or tachus, meaning 'fast' is a line joining points with constant wind speed. In meteorology, the term isogon refers to a line of constant wind direction.
Freeze and thaw[ edit ] An isopectic line denotes equal dates of ice formation each winter, and an isotac denotes equal dates of thawing. Physical geography and oceanography[ edit ] Elevation and depth[ edit ] Topographic map of StoweVermont.
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The brown contour lines represent the elevation. The contour interval is 20 feet. Contours are one of several common methods used to denote elevation or altitude and depth on maps. From these contours, a sense of the general terrain can be determined.
They are used at a variety of scales, from large-scale engineering drawings and architectural plans, through topographic maps and bathymetric chartsup to continental-scale maps.
In cartography, the contour interval is trasarea liniilor de tendință și a liniilor de canal elevation difference between adjacent contour lines. The contour interval should be the same over a single map. When calculated as a ratio against the map scale, a sense of the hilliness of the terrain can be derived.
Interpretation[ edit ] There are several rules to note when interpreting terrain contour lines: The rule of Vs: sharp-pointed vees usually are in stream valleys, with the drainage channel passing through the point of the vee, with the vee pointing upstream. This is a consequence of erosion. The rule of Os: closed loops are normally uphill on the inside and downhill on the outside, and the innermost loop is the highest area.
If a loop instead represents a depression, some maps note this by short lines called hachures which are perpendicular to the contour and point in the direction of the low.
Spacing of contours: close contours indicate a steep slope; distant contours a shallow slope. Two or more contour lines merging indicates a cliff.
By counting the number of contours that cross a segment of a streamthe stream gradient can be approximated. Of course, to determine differences in elevation between two points, the contour interval, or distance in altitude between two adjacent contour lines, must be known, and this is normally stated in the map key. Usually contour intervals are consistent throughout a map, but there are exceptions. Sometimes intermediate contours are present in flatter areas; these can be dashed or dotted lines at half the noted contour interval.
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When contours are used with hypsometric tints on a small-scale map that includes mountains and flatter low-lying areas, it is common to have smaller intervals at lower elevations so that detail is shown in all areas.
Conversely, for an island which consists of a plateau surrounded by steep cliffs, it is possible to use smaller intervals as the height increases.
The term equipotential line or isopotential line refers to a curve of constant electric potential. Whether crossing an equipotential line represents ascending or descending the potential is inferred from the labels on the charges.
In three dimensions, equipotential surfaces may be depicted with a two dimensional cross-section, showing equipotential lines at the intersection of the surfaces and the cross-section.
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The general mathematical term level set is often used to describe the full collection of points having a particular potential, especially in higher dimensional space. Magnetism[ edit ] Isogonic lines for the year The agonic lines are thicker and labeled with "0". In the study of the Earth's magnetic fieldthe term isogon or isogonic line refers to a line of constant magnetic declinationthe variation of magnetic north from geographic north.
An agonic line is drawn through points of zero magnetic declination. An isoporic line refers to a line of constant annual variation of magnetic declination. An isodynamic line from δύναμις or dynamis meaning 'power' connects points with the same intensity of magnetic force. Oceanography[ edit ] Besides ocean depth, oceanographers use contour to describe diffuse variable phenomena much as meteorologists do with atmospheric phenomena.
In particular, isobathytherms are lines showing depths of water with equal temperature, isohalines show lines of equal ocean salinity, and isopycnals are surfaces of equal water density. Geology[ edit ] Various geological data are rendered as contour maps in structural geologysedimentologystratigraphy and economic geology.
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Contour maps are used to show the below ground surface of geologic stratafault surfaces especially low angle thrust faults and unconformities. Isopach maps use isopachs lines of equal thickness to illustrate variations in thickness of geologic units. Environmental science[ edit ] In discussing pollution, density maps can be very useful in indicating sources and areas of greatest contamination. Contour maps are especially useful for diffuse forms or scales of pollution. Acid precipitation is indicated on maps with isoplats.
Some of the most widespread applications of environmental science contour maps involve mapping of environmental noise where lines of equal sound pressure level are denoted trasarea liniilor de tendință și a liniilor de canal air pollutionsoil contaminationthermal pollution and groundwater contamination.
By contour planting and contour ploughingthe rate of water runoff and thus soil erosion can be substantially reduced; this is especially important in riparian zones. Ecology[ edit ] An isoflor is an isopleth contour connecting areas of comparable biological diversity. Usually, the variable is the number of species of a given genus or family that occurs in a region.
Isoflor maps are thus used to show distribution patterns and trends such as centres of diversity.
All points on a particular indifference curve have the same value of the utility functionwhose values implicitly come out of the page in the unshown third dimension. In economicscontour lines can be used to describe features which vary quantitatively over space.
An isochrone shows lines of equivalent drive time or travel time to a given location and is used in the generation of isochrone maps. An isotim shows equivalent transport costs from the source of a raw material, and an isodapane shows equivalent cost of travel time. A single production isoquant convex and a single isocost curve linear.
Labor usage is plotted horizontally trasarea liniilor de tendință și a liniilor de canal physical capital usage is plotted vertically. Contour lines are also used to display non-geographic information in economics. Indifference curves as shown at left are used to show bundles of goods to which a person would assign equal utility. An isoquant in the image at right is a curve of equal production quantity for alternative combinations of input usagesand an isocost curve also in the image at right shows alternative usages having equal production costs.
In political science an analogous method is used in understanding coalitions for example the diagram in Laver and Shepsle's work .
In population dynamicsan isocline shows the set of population sizes at which the rate of change, or partial derivative, for one population in a pair of interacting populations is zero. Statistics[ edit ] In statistics, isodensity lines  or isodensanes are lines that join points with the same value of a probability density.
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Isodensanes are used to display bivariate distributions. For example, for a bivariate elliptical distribution the isodensity lines are ellipses.
Thermodynamics, engineering, and other sciences[ edit ] Various types of graphs in thermodynamicsengineering, and other sciences use isobars constant pressureisotherms constant temperatureisochors constant specific volumeor other types of isolines, even though these graphs are usually not related to maps. Such isolines are useful for representing more than two dimensions or quantities on two-dimensional graphs.
Common examples in thermodynamics are some types of phase diagrams. Isoclines are used to solve ordinary differential equations. In interpreting radar images, an isodop is a line of equal Doppler velocity, and an isoecho is a line of equal radar reflectivity. In the case of hybrid contours, energies of hybrid orbitals and the energies of pure atomic orbitals are plotted.
The graph obtained is called hybrid contour.